Tattooing involves placing a pigment in the dermis of the underlying skin layer of the epidermis tissue of the dermis. After the initial injection, the pigment is dispersed in a damaged layer homogenized across the epidermis and upper dermis, both the presence of foreign matter activates the phagocytes of the immune system to ignite the pigment particles. As the healing progress, the epidermis damaged background (eliminating the pigment from the surface), while deeper tissue granulation of the skin, which subsequently becomes the collagen growth of the connective tissue. This removes the upper dermis, where the pigment remains trapped in the fibroblasts eventually concentrated in a layer just below the dermis / epidermis boundary. Its presence there is stable, but in the long term (decades) the pigment tends to migrate deeper into the dermis, which represents for the degraded detail of old tattoos.
Some tribal cultures traditionally created tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, ashes or other agents; Some cultures continue this practice, which can be a complement to scarification. Some cultures create tattooed hands touching ink in the skin with sharp sticks or animal bones (made like needles) with clay-shaped discs or, in modern times, needles marks.
The most common method of tattooing in modern times is the electrically powered tattoo machine which inserts the ink into the skin through a needle or a group of needles that are welded into a bar, attached to a unit Of oscillation. The device quickly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 80 to 150 times per second. This procedure is usually modern sanitary. The needles are disposable needles that are packaged individually. The tattoo artist must wash his hands and should also wash the area to tattoo. Gloves should be worn at all times and the wound should be cleaned frequently with a wet disposable towel of some sort. The equipment must be sterilized in an autoclave certificate before and after each use.